Difference between revisions of "C and assembly development introduction"

From Hackspire
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (Small grammatical fixes and /usr/bin instead of /bin)
 
(13 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
This tutorial describes how to set up an environment and use the Ndless SDK to write native Ndless-compatible programs for the TI-Nspire '''on Linux'''.
+
This tutorial describes how to set up an environment and use the Ndless SDK to write native Ndless-compatible programs for the TI-Nspire.
  
'''If you are looking for a <u>Windows</u> tutorial, get one in the development resources of [http://ndlessly.wordpress.com/native-development-intro/ ndlessly]'''.
+
==Install dependencies==
 +
===On Linux distros===
 +
* '''Make sure your system has the following dependencies''': git, GCC (with c++ support), binutils, GMP (libgmp-dev), MPFR (libmpfr-dev), MPC (libmpc-dev), zlib, boost-program-options, wget. Install them with your system's package manager if not.
  
This article is written for the Ndless SDK v3.6 and higher.
+
===On Mac OS X===
 +
* TODO
 +
* '''Make sure your system has the following dependencies''': git, GCC (with c++ support), binutils, GMP, MPFR, MPC, boost-program-options, zlib, wget. Install them with your system's package manager if not, for example brew.
  
==Setting up a development environment==
+
===On Windows===
===Building and installing the toolchain and the SDK===
+
====Cygwin====
*'''Get the latest [http://www.unsads.com/projects/nsptools/downloader/download/release/5 Ndless SDK build]''' for C, C++ and assembly development on TI-Nspire.
+
* MinGW and MSYS do not work correctly, so install Cygwin (32bit, x86).
:You may also prefer to use the freshest in-development version of the Ndless SDK from [https://github.com/OlivierA/Ndless GitHub]. Just git-clone it:
+
* Install the following dependencies: php (5.6+), libboost-devel, libboost_program_options*, binutils, gcc-core, gcc-g++, git, mpfr, mpfr-devel, gmp, libgmp-devel, libmpc3, libmpc-devel, make, zlib-devel, wget
  git clone git://github.com/OlivierA/Ndless.git
+
====Windows Subsystem for Linux====
* '''Make sure your system has the following dependencies''': GMP (libgmp-dev), MPFR (libmpfr-dev), MPC (libmpc-dev) and wget. Install them with your system's package manager if not.
+
* You can also use the Windows Subsystem for Linux. In this case, follow the instructions in the Linux section.
* '''Run the SDK's ''build_toolchain.sh'' '''script that will download and build a complete ARM toolchain compatible with Ndless, and install it to ~/ndless_toolchain (edit the <tt>PREFIX</tt> variable at the beginning of the script to change this). You don't need to be root for this.
+
 
  cd Ndless-SDK/toolchain/
+
==Build and install toolchain and SDK==
 +
*'''Get the latest code from [https://github.com/ndless-nspire/Ndless GitHub]'''
 +
  git clone --recursive https://github.com/ndless-nspire/Ndless.git
 +
 
 +
* On Windows, fix the few symlinks, for instance zehn.h in the ndless-sdk/tools/genzehn folder, which has to be deleted then copied there from ndless-sdk/include (and if you intend to rebuild Ndless, utils.c from the resources folder into the different installers folders)
 +
 
 +
* '''Run the SDK's ''build_toolchain.sh'' '''script that will download and build a complete ARM toolchain compatible with Ndless, and install it (edit the <tt>PREFIX</tt> variable at the beginning of the script to change the install location). You don't need to be root for this.
 +
  cd ndless-sdk/toolchain/
 
  ./build_toolchain.sh
 
  ./build_toolchain.sh
  
Running the script again will continue from the last successful step (not redownloading everything for instance). At the end of a successful build you should see <tt>Done!</tt>. Alternatively you can verify the build using <tt>echo $?</tt>. <tt>1</tt> indicates a failure.
+
Running the script again will continue from the last successful step (not redownloading everything for instance). At the end of a successful build you should see <tt>Done!</tt>. Alternatively you can verify the build using <tt>echo $?</tt>. <tt>0</tt> indicates success.
* Now either:
+
* Now '''add the following folders to your PATH environment variable'''. On linux, <tt>~/.bash_profile</tt> should be a good place for this, just add something like this to it:
**If you don't like messing with PATH stuff, it's easy to just link the files inside. As root in the SDK's ndless/bin directory, run "link ./nspire-* /usr/bin/nspire-*" where * is replaced with gcc, as and ld.
+
  export PATH="[path_to_ndless]/ndless-sdk/toolchain/install/bin:[path_to_ndless]/ndless-sdk/bin:${PATH}"
** '''Add the following folders to your PATH environment variable''': <tt>/home/[you]/ndless_toolchain/bin</tt> and the SDK's <tt>Ndless-SDK/ndless/bin</tt>. <tt>~/.bash_profile</tt> should be a good place for this, just add something like this to it:
+
* '''Build Ndless and the SDK''', in the top level of the repository, run:
  export PATH="/home/[you]/ndless-toolchain/bin:/<path_to_SDK>/Ndless-SDK/ndless/bin:${PATH}"
 
* '''Build the SDK''', only if you are using the GitHub's clone version of the SDK:
 
cd Ndless
 
 
  make
 
  make
  
Line 28: Line 36:
 
  $ nspire-gcc
 
  $ nspire-gcc
 
If everything has been set up correctly you should see something similar to:
 
If everything has been set up correctly you should see something similar to:
  arm-none-eabi-gcc: no input files
+
  arm-none-eabi-gcc: fatal error: no input files
 
+
compilation terminated.
===nspire_emu setup===
 
  
You can use the nspire_emu emulator for windows (''nspire_emu/nspire_emu.exe'') for testing on your computer. It runs in Wine.
+
==2-minute tutorial==
Follow the instructions in <tt>nspire_emu_resources/_ReadMe.txt</tt> of the SDK. The setup requires dumping boot images from your calculator and running <tt>nspire_emu/wrapper_nspire_emu.sh</tt>.
 
 
 
==5-minute tutorial==
 
 
As a convention for the next chapters, lines starting with <tt>$</tt> are commands you should type in a console. Other lines are the command's output.
 
As a convention for the next chapters, lines starting with <tt>$</tt> are commands you should type in a console. Other lines are the command's output.
 
===Your first build===
 
===Your first build===
Ndless comes with sample programs in the ''_samples/'' directory of the Ndless SDK. We will try to build the C Hello World.
+
Ndless comes with sample programs in the ''samples/'' directory of the Ndless SDK. We will try to build the C Hello World.
 
Change the current directory of the console:
 
Change the current directory of the console:
  $ cd "<my_ndless_sdk_copy>/_samples/helloworld"
+
  $ cd "<my_ndless_sdk_copy>/ndless-sdk/samples/helloworld-sdl"
Check the content of the directory:
+
Ndless programs are built with ''GNU Make'', which is run with the command <tt>make</tt>. So let's ''make'' the program:
$ ls
 
Makefile  hello.c
 
A ''Makefile'' is a script which describes how to build the program. It is interpreted by ''GNU Make'', which is run with the command <tt>make</tt>. So let's ''make'' the program:
 
 
  $ make
 
  $ make
  nspire-gcc -Wall -W -marm -Os -c hello.c
+
  nspire-gcc -Wall -W -marm -Os -c hello-sdl.c
 
  mkdir -p .
 
  mkdir -p .
  nspire-ld-bflt  hello.o -o ./helloworld.tns
+
  nspire-ld hello-sdl.o -o ./helloworld-sdl.elf
''make'' tells us the different commands used during the building process.
+
genzehn --input ./helloworld-sdl.elf --output ./helloworld-sdl.tns --name "helloworld-sdl"
 
+
make-prg ./helloworld-sdl.tns ./helloworld-sdl.prg.tns
 
<tt>nspire-gcc</tt> is Ndless's wrapper for the GNU C Compiler ''GCC'', which compiles C and assembly source files to object files (here ''hello.o'').
 
<tt>nspire-gcc</tt> is Ndless's wrapper for the GNU C Compiler ''GCC'', which compiles C and assembly source files to object files (here ''hello.o'').
  
<tt>nspire-ld-bflt</tt> is the wrapper for the GNU linker ''ld'', which combines object files to produce an executable in the bFLT binary format supported by Ndless.
+
<tt>nspire-ld</tt> is the wrapper for ''GCC'', which redirects gcc with the option "-fuse-ld=gold" to use another wrapper "arm-none-eabi-ld.gold" as linker. "arm-none-eabi-ld.gold" adds some necessary libraries to the final program.
  
===A C program===
+
<tt>genzehn</tt> converts the executable created by "nspire-ld" to a format, which ndless supports.
Let's have a look at the Hello World source code ''hello.c''. It follows the C conventions.
 
  
It has an entry point:
+
<tt>make-prg</tt> adds a simple loader on top so the executable works on older versions of ndless.
int main(void) {
 
and a return code (required but currently ignored by Ndless and the OS):
 
  return 0;
 
}
 
All Ndless programs require the standard include file, ''os.h'':
 
#include <os.h>
 
 
 
This allows programs to call ''syscalls'' provided by the TI-Nspire Operating System. Some syscalls are functions from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_standard_library C standard library], others are part of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_POSIX_library C POSIX library]. There are also functions of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleus_RTOS Nucleus RTOS] on which is based the TI-Nspire OS.
 
 
 
We are also using the ''nspireio2'' library provided with the SDK:
 
#include <nspireio2.h>
 
 
 
Let's now say hello with nspireio2:
 
nio_console csl;
 
lcd_ingray(); // because nspireio2 doesn't support colors
 
clrscr(); // clear the screen
 
// 53 columns, 29 rows. 0px offset for x/y.
 
// Background color 0 (black), foreground color 15 (white)
 
nio_InitConsole(&csl, 53, 29, 0, 0, 0, 15);
 
nio_DrawConsole(&csl);
 
nio_printf(&csl, "hello world!");
 
wait_key_pressed();
 
nio_CleanUp(&csl);
 
  
 
===Your first program===
 
===Your first program===
You can copy the ''helloworld'' directory and start to adapt the source code.
 
 
 
If you want to create a program from scratch:
 
If you want to create a program from scratch:
 
*Create a new directory for the program
 
*Create a new directory for the program
 
*Type in a console:
 
*Type in a console:
 
  cd "<your directory path>"
 
  cd "<your directory path>"
  nspire-tools new <program>
+
  nspire-tools new <name>
:where <program> is your program name. This will create a Makefile to build ''<program>.tns''
+
:where <name> is your program name. This will create a Makefile to build ''<program>.tns''
 
*Create a new .c file and edit your program
 
*Create a new .c file and edit your program
*Run the <tt>make</tt> command to build it
+
*Run <tt>make</tt> to build it
 
 
===Going further===
 
*Pick up a good C tutorial before writing your own programs
 
*Learn the syntax of [http://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/make.html GNU Make's Makefiles] to adapt them to your own build requirements
 
*Learn to use [http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/ GNU GCC] features and extensions
 

Latest revision as of 14:40, 21 June 2019

This tutorial describes how to set up an environment and use the Ndless SDK to write native Ndless-compatible programs for the TI-Nspire.

Install dependencies

On Linux distros

  • Make sure your system has the following dependencies: git, GCC (with c++ support), binutils, GMP (libgmp-dev), MPFR (libmpfr-dev), MPC (libmpc-dev), zlib, boost-program-options, wget. Install them with your system's package manager if not.

On Mac OS X

  • TODO
  • Make sure your system has the following dependencies: git, GCC (with c++ support), binutils, GMP, MPFR, MPC, boost-program-options, zlib, wget. Install them with your system's package manager if not, for example brew.

On Windows

Cygwin

  • MinGW and MSYS do not work correctly, so install Cygwin (32bit, x86).
  • Install the following dependencies: php (5.6+), libboost-devel, libboost_program_options*, binutils, gcc-core, gcc-g++, git, mpfr, mpfr-devel, gmp, libgmp-devel, libmpc3, libmpc-devel, make, zlib-devel, wget

Windows Subsystem for Linux

  • You can also use the Windows Subsystem for Linux. In this case, follow the instructions in the Linux section.

Build and install toolchain and SDK

  • Get the latest code from GitHub
git clone --recursive https://github.com/ndless-nspire/Ndless.git
  • On Windows, fix the few symlinks, for instance zehn.h in the ndless-sdk/tools/genzehn folder, which has to be deleted then copied there from ndless-sdk/include (and if you intend to rebuild Ndless, utils.c from the resources folder into the different installers folders)
  • Run the SDK's build_toolchain.sh script that will download and build a complete ARM toolchain compatible with Ndless, and install it (edit the PREFIX variable at the beginning of the script to change the install location). You don't need to be root for this.
cd ndless-sdk/toolchain/
./build_toolchain.sh

Running the script again will continue from the last successful step (not redownloading everything for instance). At the end of a successful build you should see Done!. Alternatively you can verify the build using echo $?. 0 indicates success.

  • Now add the following folders to your PATH environment variable. On linux, ~/.bash_profile should be a good place for this, just add something like this to it:
export PATH="[path_to_ndless]/ndless-sdk/toolchain/install/bin:[path_to_ndless]/ndless-sdk/bin:${PATH}"
  • Build Ndless and the SDK, in the top level of the repository, run:
make

Verifying the installation

  • Open a console, and run:
$ nspire-gcc

If everything has been set up correctly you should see something similar to:

arm-none-eabi-gcc: fatal error: no input files
compilation terminated.

2-minute tutorial

As a convention for the next chapters, lines starting with $ are commands you should type in a console. Other lines are the command's output.

Your first build

Ndless comes with sample programs in the samples/ directory of the Ndless SDK. We will try to build the C Hello World. Change the current directory of the console:

$ cd "<my_ndless_sdk_copy>/ndless-sdk/samples/helloworld-sdl"

Ndless programs are built with GNU Make, which is run with the command make. So let's make the program:

$ make
nspire-gcc -Wall -W -marm -Os -c hello-sdl.c
mkdir -p .
nspire-ld hello-sdl.o -o ./helloworld-sdl.elf 
genzehn --input ./helloworld-sdl.elf --output ./helloworld-sdl.tns --name "helloworld-sdl"
make-prg ./helloworld-sdl.tns ./helloworld-sdl.prg.tns

nspire-gcc is Ndless's wrapper for the GNU C Compiler GCC, which compiles C and assembly source files to object files (here hello.o).

nspire-ld is the wrapper for GCC, which redirects gcc with the option "-fuse-ld=gold" to use another wrapper "arm-none-eabi-ld.gold" as linker. "arm-none-eabi-ld.gold" adds some necessary libraries to the final program.

genzehn converts the executable created by "nspire-ld" to a format, which ndless supports.

make-prg adds a simple loader on top so the executable works on older versions of ndless.

Your first program

If you want to create a program from scratch:

  • Create a new directory for the program
  • Type in a console:
cd "<your directory path>"
nspire-tools new <name>
where <name> is your program name. This will create a Makefile to build <program>.tns
  • Create a new .c file and edit your program
  • Run make to build it